The 10 most common types of speech disorders

The 10 most common types of speech disorders

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Exact synchronization between several bodily regions, such as the head, neck, chest, and belly are needed for speaking properly. Any illness that impairs a person's capacity to speak correctly is known as a speech disorder. Speech therapy can help with a better quality of life regardless of how the condition develops. In this article, we will discuss the top 10 common types of speech disorders.

Read Also : Speech Disorders:Types,Causes,Symptoms,Diagnosis & Treatment

Most Commonly Known Speech Disorders

Listed below are some of the commonly known speech disorders with a brief description and understanding of them. 

  • Apraxia of Speech (AOS)

Apraxia of speech (AOS) occurs when the neurological link between a person's brain and their speech function or speech muscles is damaged or destroyed. Even though a person is aware of the words they wish to use, they may still have difficulty forming the right speech sounds due to apraxia of speech, also known as verbal apraxia.

The diagnosis of mild instances may be more challenging, particularly in youngsters who may have many undiagnosed speech impairments. It is not a language disorder; however, word mispronunciation and tone, rhythm, or emphasis variations are among the signs of mild types of AOS, which are also present in several other speech disorders.

The symptoms of severe instances, which include difficulty articulating words, grasping for sound places, off-target motions that distort sounds, and inconsistent pronunciation, are easier to identify.

  • Stuttering

Stuttering can manifest itself in a variety of ways, such as "blocks," which are marked by protracted pauses, "prolongations," which lengthen speech sounds; and "repetitions," which involve repeating a specific sound within a phrase. Although it's not always there, stuttering could become worse when there is anxiety or enthusiasm.

Stutterers have difficulties speaking, even when they are aware of what they want to express. Stuttering frequently initially becomes apparent while a youngster starts to talk, and around 75% of children who stutter eventually outgrow it.

  • Dysarthria

Speaking with an irregular rhythm, slowing down, slurring, having restricted jaw and tongue movement, laborious speech, and having trouble articulating are all symptoms of dysarthria. It arises from injury to the vocal cords, diaphragm, lips, tongue, or other speaking muscles or nerves.

The problem can range in severity and be accompanied by other disorders, such as speech apraxia. Dysarthria patients may slur their words, mumble quietly, sound robotic, speak slowly or quickly, or have difficulty moving their tongue or mouth. Some people's voices no longer sound the same as they did before to damage.

  • Lisping

The most prevalent form of lisp is known as an "interdental" lisp, which occurs when a speaker makes a "th" sound while trying to produce an "s." When treating individuals with lisping problems, speech-language pathologists provide an added degree of expertise. SLPs can play a significant role in treating lisps since they are functional speech disorders, and the end outcome is frequently the total eradication of the lisp.

Even though adults can also gain from treatment, it is most successful when started at a young age. If a kid is four years old and still exhibits an interdental/decentralized lisp, experts advise seeking professional SLP help. For all other varieties of lisps, SLP assistance is advised as soon as feasible.

  • Aphasia

Damage to the brain's language functions results in communication impairment, known as aphasia. Since aphasia only affects the speech and language center of the brain, it differs from apraxia of speech and dysarthria. It frequently occurs in people who have had a stroke, but it can also happen following a severe brain injury, a degenerative brain illness, or a brain tumor.

The capacity to grasp spoken and written language is also impacted by this condition, which extends beyond speech, making it part of language disorder. People who suffer from aphasia may struggle to talk in whole phrases or coherently. They may also struggle to recall the proper word to use or express.

  • Selective Mutism

Selective mutism is the inability to communicate in some or most situations while being physically competent to do so. A child's severe shyness, fear of shame, trauma, need for solitude, or anxiety is frequently linked. Selective mutism has a psychological component.

Extremely shy children who have anxiety disorders or are going through a time of social retreat or isolation may exhibit this type of speech disorder. Counseling or another sort of psychological intervention should be used to address these psychological variables, each of which has its unique origins.

  • Cluttering

Speaking quickly or jerkily and frequently interjecting with "like," "hmm," and "uh" are symptoms of cluttering, a fluency issue. Additionally, it frequently exhibits an unnatural rhythm of speech as well as the omission or collapse of syllables.

The early signs of disorder usually arise in childhood. Like other fluency issues, cluttering may be greatly improved or eliminated with the help of SLPs. Early intervention is the most beneficial, although adults can still gain from working with an SLP.

  • Spasmodic Dysphonia

When a person tries to talk, their vocal cords will spasm, identifying them as having spasmodic dysphonia. The outcome is a voice that is trembling, moaning, or nervous. The diagnosis of SD is a team effort for SLPs that also includes an ear, nose, and throat specialist (otolaryngologist) and a neurologist.

It is so because it is challenging to separate vocal cord spasms as the cause of a weak or trembling voice. The illness is most frequently seen in adults, with the onset of symptoms typically appearing between the ages of 30 and 50.

  • Alalia (Delayed Speech)

Having a language issue may be the cause of a child's major speech and language development delays. These conditions are known as preschool language problems. Alalia is another name for delayed speech. The absence of age-appropriate communication in a kid might have several causes.

This can range from the child being a "late bloomer," who just speaks a little slower than typical, to the youngster suffering brain damage. Until a reason for a speech delay is identified, an SLP's responsibility is to conduct a process of elimination, considering every potential cause.

  • Autism Related Speech Issues

Among the difficulties with social skills and repetitive behaviors associated with autism, spectrum disorder are communication issues. When learning to read or write, utilizing language, conversing, or comprehending others, someone with autism may struggle. Additionally, he or she can have a robotic voice, talk very little or not at all, and be difficult to understand.

The inability to coordinate the movements needed to produce sounds and syllables is known as apraxia of speech, and it is one of the most prevalent speech problems connected to autism spectrum diseases. Repetition, peculiar inflection, and muteness are three significant speech disorders that are frequently connected to autism spectrum disorder.

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Read Also : What does speech therapy entail?

Conclusion

From minor to severe, Speech Disorders might exist in all ages as all ages are susceptible to speech difficulties. Some are there from birth, while others come into being gradually. Some are brought on by injury or a handicap, while others are a result of neurological function. Some speech problems are reversible, but others are permanent issues. In either scenario, speech pathology treatment can aid in maximizing verbal ability and fostering the development of non-verbal communication skills.

Tarang Speech and Hearing Clinic is a reputed and trusted speech and hearing care center. The clinic was established with the aim of offering hearing aids and full diagnostic and rehabilitation services for people with speech and hearing problems. Since its establishment, Tarang has maintained its reputation of being the most professional and supportive care center for the differently abled. With it's latest hearing aid technology, Tarang has brought "voice and music' to many with their commendable care and service.