Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Autism Spectrum Disorder Treatment in Delhi

What is Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

Autism also is known as autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that involves issues with communication and conduct. It can include varied skills as well as symptoms. Autism can be either a small issue or it might be a disability that requires all-time care in some good facility. People suffering from autism face a problem with communication. They face a problem in understanding what people think and feel. This is the reason they feel difficulty in expressing themselves, with words or gestures, touch or facial expressions.

Autistic people face a problem with learning and they might develop skills unevenly. Like for instance, they might have trouble communicating with others but they will be good in art, memory and music. Due to this, sometimes people suffering from autism do well in analysis tests and problem-solving.

Nowadays, a large number of people are diagnosed with autism but it might be because of all changes in methods of diagnosis. Visit Tarang Clinic, the Speech & Hearing Aid Clinic in Delhi.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Autism?

Signs and symptoms appear before a kid turns 3 but some people also symptoms right from birth. Some of the common symptoms of autism are:

  • No eye contact.
  • Either very less interest or forceful interest in some topics.
  • Performing something repeatedly like retelling phrases, back and forth rocking or spinning a lever.
  • Intense sensitivity to touches, sights, sounds that are ordinary to other people.
  • No looking or listening to people.
  • Not looking at things that other people point to them.
  • No interest in getting cuddles or hold.
  • Issues in understanding or utilizing speech, gestures, tone of voice.
  • Talking in a robotic voice.
  • Issues in getting adapted to routine changes.
  • Some person with autism also gets seizures.

What are the causes of Autism?

The reasons why autism is caused is still not clear. It might start from problems in some of the parts of the brain that interferes with the sensory input as well as process language. Autism is more common in boys when compared to girls. It can affect people of any race, social background or ethnicity. Autism also runs in families, therefore some of the gene combinations might enhance the risk. Usually, a child who is born to older parents run a high risk of getting autism.

When a pregnant woman is open to some of the drugs like anti-seizure medication or alcohol, there is a high chance that the born child might be autistic. Some of the other risk factors include mother metabolic conditions like obesity, diabetes. Research also shows that when phenylketonuria is not treated, it also causes autism.

What are the types of Autism?

There are four different types of autism:

  1. Asperger's syndrome: It is in the mild end of the spectrum where people are high functioning with either normal or above-average intelligence. Some of the signs and symptoms include:
    • Diminished social interaction.
    • The issue in reading facial expressions, social cues as well as body language.
    • Not understanding humour or irony.
    • No eye contact.
    • Repeating behaviours along with activities.
  2. Pervasive developmental disorder: This falls in the mild or middle section of the spectrum also called atypical autism. Signs and symptoms of this type of autism include:
    • Deficiency in social behaviour.
    • Irregular skill development.
    • Improper development of speech and language.
    • Difficulty in accepting change.
    • Uneven likes and dislikes.
    • Repetitive behaviours.
  3. Autistic disorder: This disorder falls at the end of the spectrum. Some of the symptoms include:
    • Challenges with social interaction
    • Communication issues.
    • Repeat behaviours.
    • Kids with the severe end of the spectrum always prefer to play alone with very less interest or no interest in the outside world.
  4. Childhood disintegrative disorder: A person with this disorder meet normal developmental stages in the first few years, then there is a decrease in acquired skills like
    • Language and communication
    • Social skills and self-care skills.
    • Motor skills.

How to Diagnose Autism?

It is hard to diagnosis autism and mostly doctor focuses on behaviour and development. For a child it takes two steps:

A screening of developmental skills will help your doctor in knowing whether the child is on track or not with all basic skills like learning, moving, speaking and behaviour. As per the experts, children should be screened for those delays during their regular check-ups. Children are checked for autism at their 18 months and 24-month check-ups.

When your child shows any sign of a problem during these screenings they will require a complete assessment. This involves hearing and vision test. Your doctor might also advise showing someone who specializes in autism disorder like a child psychologist or a developmental paediatrician.

How to treat Autism?

There is no treatment for autism but with the early cure, it can make a big difference in child development. If you think your child is showing some symptoms of autism then it's best to show your doctor as quickly as possible. Something that works for one person might not work for others and your doctor might tailor the whole treatment for your child. The two main kinds of treatment include:

Behavioural and communication therapy assist in structure and organization. Applied behaviour analysis is one kind of cure that helps in promoting positive behaviour and helps in discouraging negative behaviour.

Occupational therapy helps in life skills like dressing and relating to people. Sensory integration therapy assists someone with the problem of being touched, sights or sounds. Speech Pathologist in Delhi assists in enhancing communication skills.

Some medications help in treating symptoms like problems with attention, anxiety etc.

How does autism affect kids?

Children suffering from autism face trouble with communication and in understanding what other people are thinking and feeling. This makes them very hard for expressing themselves in words, facial expressions or gestures. A child having autism who is sensitive might have trouble with sounds, smells, sights.

Children's might develop repetitive and stereotyped body movements like rocking and hand flapping. They might develop some unusual response to people, object attachments along with some aggressive and self-injurious behaviours. Some children might also develop seizures.

Kids are also self-absorbed and try to exist in a private world where they have less ability to communicate with others. They might face problem in developing language skills and in understanding what others are saying. Their ability to make communication and utilize language mainly depends on intellectual and social development.

Why we need autism awareness?

Autism awareness has increased a lot in recent times. But still, there is a very long way to go. Most often we hear from the family of autistic persons that they face judgmental attitudes depending on misinformed stereotypes like autism only affects kids or they lack empathy. Stigma to autism is often difficult to deal because it affects everybody in different ways.

Improving awareness of autism helps in improving every part of lives and helps in early diagnosis and support. It lowers the incidence of bullying at school and enhancing employment prospects for autistic persons. Autism can have a big effect on all individual and families but with proper understanding as well as support, we can make a huge difference.